Is Grafting the Secret to Success with Heirlooms?

by Marty Fisher, EMGV

“But tomatoes are supposed to be red!” my father used to insist, upon seeing our harvest of gorgeous heirlooms–in hues of black, green, orange, yellow, striped, even blue!

Gradually, red tomatoes had become passe in our garden. We reveled in the different tastes and textures and the beautiful multicolored mason jars lining our shelves at the end of every growing season.

tomato types poster.JPG

And then disaster struck. One year, one by one, apparently healthy, robust plants would wither and die overnight. We were devastated! All of the literature had warned of the blight–late blight, early blight, wilt–it didn’t matter what you called it, once it hit, there was nothing you could do but wait and hope for survivors.

We learned that we should have been rotating our crop every year. But that’s hard to do given the size of our city garden and the massive cage my husband had build to protect our precious fruits from squirrels.

We tried fungicide–the natural kind and the nasty copper stuff. We also increased space between plants, washed our hands when we handled the plants, removed the lower leaves, and mulched the plants with straw to keep contaminated soil from splashing onto them. We even moved the tomatoes–and their massive cage–over a few rows. All of these efforts yielded some success, but we still lost plants every season. I could hardly stand to go out to the garden for fear of finding that another beautiful heirloom, loaded with fruit, had bitten the dust.

“You should plant disease-resistant tomatoes–red tomatoes,” said my father.

Grudgingly, we planted some Better Boys, some Big Beef, and some Celebrity. They were dependable and good tasting, but it just wasn’t the same. Even though I had enjoyed those popular varieties as a child, once I discovered heirlooms, there was no going back. Even the names of the heirlooms hinted at a time when tomatoes were cherished, traded among friends, and passed down from generation to generation–Dad’s Sunset, Amana Orange, Cherokee Purple, Brandywine, Green Zebra.

Finally, last year, I discovered the art of grafting. It’s similar to what has been done with apples for years. You graft the top of an heirloom plant onto the root stock of an ancient, disease-resistant plant. When successful, the root-stock confers vigor and protects against disease. I successfully grafted four heirloom tomatoes last year. (I lost many more than that …) But the grafted plants produced all summer and well into fall. By October they were the sole survivors in a row of more than 20 black and withered plants. We picked and savored the last delicious fruits in early November.

tomato seedlings.JPG

This year I will try again. I hope to produce more grafted plants. Grafting is not easy–it involves planting about twice as many seeds as you normally would, cutting the top off perfectly healthy little seedlings, attaching them with special clips to the root stock, nurturing the traumatized plants in a dark “healing chamber,” and then gradually re-introducing them to the light.

I am no expert. I’m only a desperate tomato lover willing to try almost anything.

Follow my posts and I’ll let you know how it goes, with step-by-step instructions, equipment lists, online resources, and photos.

Additional Resources

This article is very general, but there is a link to a YouTube video that is fascinating and contains many more links about grafting.

This is a link to the video and the additional links.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSwTCwlhFgo

Here is another excellent .pdf of a step-by-step article from Perdue University.

Crop Rotation

by Ann Barnes

It’s a beautiful early August day in Durham. To beat the heat, I am making a list of fall crops I want to grow and deciding where in the garden each will be planted. Earlier this year, I drew and scanned a map of the garden, which I now use to record what is planted each season and to plan for future crop rotation.

 

Portion of garden map, with permanent planting of strawberries labeled.
Portion of garden map, with permanent planting of strawberries labeled.

Although planning your garden ahead and rotating your crops may seem like one of those extra steps you’d like to skip, there are some good reasons why you shouldn’t.

  1. Crop rotation helps keep populations of insect pests and disease causing microorganisms (pathogens) under control. Pathogens and destructive insects tend to prefer certain plant families. Many insects and disease organisms overwinter in the ground or on dead plant material. If the same plant – or a plant from the same family – is planted in one spot year after year, populations of pests will increase over time. Problems that might have been a nuisance can become severe enough to destroy a whole crop. Rotating crops makes it more difficult for pests to build up large populations.
  2. Different types of crops have different nutritional requirements. Some plants, like tomatoes, are heavy feeders – they take more nutrients from the soil. Root vegetables such as carrots are light feeders. Planting crops with the same nutritional requirements in the same spot for too long can decrease soil quality.

For crop rotation to be effective, don’t plant crops from one plant family in the same part of your garden more often than once every three years. This is where drawing and labeling a map of your garden each season comes in handy. Below are some commonly grown crops and their plant families (from http://watauga.ces.ncsu.edu/files/library/95/crop%20rotation%20factsheet.pdf).

Sunflower family lettuces, sunflowers
Goosefoot family beets, spinach, chard, quinoa
Mustard family mustard greens, rutabaga, kale, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, watercress
Onion family garlic, shallots, leeks, onions, chives
Gourd family melons, squashes, gourds
Pea family peas, beans, jicama, peanuts
Nightshade family peppers, tomatoes, eggplant, potato
Carrot family celery, dill, chervil, fennel, carrot, parsnip, parsley
Grass family corn

Note that not all these plants should be planted now. See the following for planting times:
http://content.ces.ncsu.edu/central-north-carolina-planting-calendar-for-annual-vegetables-fruits-and-herbs.pdf

A sample crop rotation is included in this article: http://extension.psu.edu/pests/ipm/pestproblemsolver/house/home-garden/soil-plant-health/crop-rotation

The Getting Dirty Radio Show http://gettingdirtyradioshow.org/2015/07/31/a-second-season-sowing/ has an excellent post and recording about planting in August, including how to calculate a planting date based on information on seed packages.

Want to read more?
http://currituck.ces.ncsu.edu/2012/05/vegetable-crop-rotation/

http://watauga.ces.ncsu.edu/files/library/95/crop%20rotation%20factsheet.pdf

http://blogs.extension.org/mastergardener/2014/07/15/escape-the-heat-by-thinking-fall-gardening/

 

Educational Opportunities, week of August 11, 2014

Getting Dirty with Durham County Master Gardeners Radio Show  – Broadcasts Tuesdays at 2:00 pm on WCOM 103.5  Can be heard live or replayed any time at http://gettingdirtyradioshow.org
August 12 – Now is the time to start thinking about saving seeds for next season.  The Enthusiastic Gardener, Charles Murphy, is back and in the mood to build something.  Our host, Harold Johnson, will explore gardening from the ground up with Dr. Nicolette Cagle, soil ecologist from Duke University.

Cover Crops and Crop Rotation

Saturday, Aug 16, 2014 10:00am – 11:00am 

Where: Durham County Cooperative Extension, 721 Foster Street, Durham, NC

Cover crops help improve the soil & prevent weds fro establishing in between crops. Cover crops solar charge & improve your soil. Need to give your soil a rest for the season, plant a cover crop & reap the benefits. Class is free/registration is required. 919-560-0525

Seed Harvesting and Saving Workshop

Sunday, Aug 17, 2014 3:00pm – 5:00pm 

Where: Durham County Public Library, South Regional Branch, 4505 South Alston Ave., Durham, NC

Come learn how to save & store seeds from this year’s produce for next year’s garden. Hands-on demosnstration. Presented by Sara Smith, Durham County Extension Master Gardener. Class is free. Registration is required 919-560-7410