Finding Credible Sources


by Ann Barnes

When looking for answers to gardening questions, the internet is a fast and convenient place to search. It is important to remember that anyone can post content online, and there is no review process to ensure information on every website is correct. Extension Master Gardeners recommend unbiased, research-based information. There are many websites that claim to provide gardening information. Not all of them can be considered credible.

The “Who What Where When Why and How” of finding trustworthy information:

Who are the authors, and for whom are they writing? Are they experts in a scientific field related to gardening, affiliated with a university, or trained Master Gardener Volunteers? Do the authors cite sources and/or provide links for further reading, and are those links to research-based sources? Does the author (or the entire website) seem to have an agenda or are they presenting unbiased information? Are the authors even listed, or does the article appear to be shared from some unnamed source? If you can’t determine who wrote the article (individual or organization), how can you know if the author is a credible source?

If a light switch in my house wasn’t working, I would call an electrician. Advice from my pharmacist or from a blogger who posts “home hacks” would not give me as much confidence as advice from an expert. The same should hold true for gardening – consult an expert in agriculture for the most reliable answers to questions about growing plants.

What: There is a science to growing great plants, so look for answers on sites that are research-based. There should be links to studies that support recommendations. When applicable, both organic and chemical options will be discussed in an unbiased manner. Keep in mind that natural doesn’t always mean safer or more effective, and not everything presented as a fact on the internet is true. Always check sources, particularly when you see a “scientific fact” shared as a meme or a link on social media.

Credible sources don’t promise miracles or promote home remedies over conventional growing practices. Credible sources aren’t trying to make a sale or to criticize an existing product. Credible sources typically won’t promise that “your jaw will drop”.

Where: Check the URL of sites in your search results. Sites that end in .edu or .org (education or organization sites) are more likely to contain unbiased and research-based information. Master Gardener Volunteers are affiliated with Cooperative Extension, whose purpose is to share information obtained from research conducted at land grant universities, such as NCSU and NC A&T. Therefore, we recommend searching Extension websites. Sometimes answers can be found at any state’s land grant university, but keep in mind our Plant Hardiness Zone when searching for information about specific growing questions. For example, the average last frost date in the Triangle is much earlier than the average last frost date in Wisconsin, so you would need to look closer to home when searching for when to plant your tomatoes.

Here’s ONE WEIRD TRICK for finding all the garden answers you need:

Bookmark this link, and you can search like a Master Gardener:

This will take you to a custom search engine that will only search Cooperative Extension sites. If you’d like to broaden your search beyond land grant universities but still search only for sites associated with academia, use your favorite search engine and follow your search terms with “”. For example, when researching how to grow tomatoes in containers, type: Tomatoes in containers in your browser’s search bar.

When: Does the article have a publication date? Science is an ongoing process and recommendations sometimes change due to new research, so it is best to use fairly recent sources. If there are links, are they current? Broken links may be a clue that an article is older.

Why: What is the purpose of the site? Is it providing unbiased, research-based information? If it isn’t a university website, is it selling a product? Does the site have bias towards or against a certain way of gardening? A site promoting a product has a goal of making sales, so there will be a bias towards their product. Similarly, articles published by authors with a mistrust of agricultural chemicals will show a bias towards organic solutions. While biased sites may provide information that is correct, they may not be showing you all your options or the data behind these options.

Finally, there are the click bait articles, those amazing home remedies that are supposedly better than commercially available products, full of “facts” that sound miraculous but often aren’t true. The same information, word-for-word, may be posted on multiple websites. Click bait sites are designed to get people to click on them, it’s as simple as that. They don’t have to cite sources, use research methodology, or even be scientifically accurate. There is a lot of bogus science out there, and some of it looks pretty believable if you don’t check for source material.

Debunking some internet myths about gardening: (one of my favorite sources)

How: Good science is based on experiments that follow the scientific method, in which a scientist tests his or her hypothesis in a series of experiments. If I wanted to test Grandma’s Homemade Weed Killer to see if it was as effective as a leading Big Agricultural Product, I would need to conduct tests using each product on similar weeds in similar conditions, then compare results to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the two.

If I simply sprayed weeds with the Grandma’s Homemade Weed Killer, found some dead weeds, and announced that this remedy was safer and more effective than the Big Agricultural Product (without comparing the two in well designed experiments), my claim would be invalid, since I didn’t test for safety, nor did I compare the two weed control products. Claims need to be backed up with experiments.

How to design an experiment:

Evaluating sources:

More information about Extension and the Master Gardener program:

Volunteer Spotlight -Public Events with Master Gardener Volunteers

by Ann Barnes

Durham Master Gardeners are looking for new volunteers! Our next training class begins in January 2017. in the next few months, this blog will spotlight some of the many ways our volunteers help our community. If you are interested in becoming an Extension Master Gardener Volunteer (EMGV) in Durham, please click the link below for more information:

Become A Master Gardener

The Public Events committee is responsible for marketing and coordinating activities where EMGVs are asked to provide research based assistance to the public directly. Volunteers can be found at many events and locations around Durham County, including at the Farmers’ Market, Sarah P. Duke Gardens, the Festival for the Eno, as well as at corporate, school, and neighborhood events. Last month, two of our volunteers spent some time at the “Birds, Butterflies, Bees, and Blooms” event which was sponsored by the  Wildlife Habitat Council and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Photos from Birds, Butterflies, Bees, and Blooms

This wonderful event brought a diverse group of professionals together with one purpose in mind—to provide information about the
critical importance of pollinators and what steps we can take to increase their chances for survival now and in the future.  From beekeepers to wildlife experts,
conservation groups, and plant experts, all were ready to share their passion for restoring and preserving habitats for pollinators and birds.
-Deborah Pilkington, EMGV

Deborah Pilkington volunteered along with Tina Falker. Both volunteers answered questions and provided research based gardening information to attendees, with a focus on pollinators and pollinator-friendly plants. As Event Captain, Falker was also responsible for transporting educational materials prepared for this event by the Public Events Committee.

This was a lively, well-attended event and we talked to 32 people. Many were interested in adding pollinator-friendly plants to their living space… which ranged from an apartment balcony to a house in the “country”.  – Tina Falker, EMGV

Both volunteers signed up for this event because, as Pilkington says, “I love to volunteer at these events because I have a real passion for pollinators and birds, and the gardens that sustain them. I also learn a lot from the other experts at events like these”. Plus, Falker pointed out “It was held indoors!”, which is always appealing on a hot summer day.

I enjoy talking with people about gardening… what are their latest successes? Challenges? Will this humidity ever end, and will it ever be cool again? I especially like to help “transplants” avoid the mistakes that I’ve made. I also like to encourage people not to give up if they’ve had limited gardening success in the past… even experienced gardeners kill plants, so don’t give up! Ask questions, learn from your mistakes, and be realistic when it comes to planning a garden. One or two potted plants may be just right for now! – Tina Falker

EMGVs who enjoy volunteering for public events often say that they love talking about gardening and answering questions – and some of us do so wherever we go. If this sounds like a volunteer opportunity you would love, consider joining the Durham EMGVs!

Here’s that link again:



Introducing Our Team

Ann Barnes: Once the sole blogger here, Ann is happy to welcome additional writers who will be contributing on a regular basis. She will continue to write and serve as the blog administrator. Ann studied plant pathology at NCSU and wants to identify every disease and insect in her garden. She also enjoys disproving gardening myths that she reads on social media. She works part-time as a school garden coordinator and has been a Master Gardener Volunteer since 2011.

Andrea Laine: Ornamental gardening has been a hobby and interest of Andrea’s for some 30 years. She cringes when people refer to toiling in soil as “yard work.” To her, all gardening is an honorable endeavor. Even weeding! She moved to Durham from the Northeast three years ago and, given Durham’s hot summers, is happy to have a woodland garden with a fence that keeps deer at bay.

Wendy Diaz: Wendy is a Canadian transplant and for the past 16 years has enjoyed gardening in all our four seasons.  She is a life-long gardener and also enjoys, biking, reading, and traveling. Wendy holds a B.Sc. in Geological Sciences from Queen’s University in Kingston and a Masters of Science in Hydrogeology from Memorial University of Newfoundland. She has retired from here career in Environmental consulting.  Wendy enjoys volunteering in our community and is a new Master Gardener Volunteer, working on the Radio Show and Durham Finest Trees committees.

Kathryn Hamilton: Until she finished her Master Gardener training in 2015, Kathryn Hamilton has been an “accidental gardener.” Now, understanding the importance of key issues such as “the right plant in the right place,” she is looking forward to being a much more productive member of the Triangle gardening community. Professionally, she is a writer and a marketing consultant.

Karimah Abdusamad: Karimah has been gardening locally since 2001.She is permaculture certified and a beekeeper. As a Master Gardener Volunteer her interests are school gardens and increasing pollinator plants in the Durham community.

Educational Opportunities, Week of 9/22/14

Canker Worm Workshop
Monday, Sep 22, 2014 6:30pm – 7:30pm
Where: Sarah P. Duke Gardens, 420 Anderson Street, Durham, NC
Cankerworms are becoming a growing problem in Durham. They are those nuisance inch worms that appear in the spring and defoliate the trees. To combat this problem there will be a series of workshops to demonstrate how and when to wrap a barrier around you tree to get the biggest impact, learn when and how to glue, and when to remove the barrier so that you don’t girdle the trees
Class is free / registration is required.
Contact: 919-668-1707

Information Session for 2015 Master Gardener Training
Tuesday, Sep 23, 2014 1:00pm – 3:00pm
Where: Durham County Cooperative Extension, 721 Foster Street, Durham, NC
Have you considered becoming a Durham County Extension Master Gardener Volunteer? Attendance at one of the information sessions is a requirement to apply for the training program. Free/ Registration is required. 919-560-0525

Bulbs in the Landscape – Durham Garden Forum
Tuesday, Sep 23, 2014 6:30pm – 8:00pm
Where: Sarah P. Duke Gardens, 420 Anderson Street, Durham, NC, United States
Our program this month is “Bulbs in the Landscape” with Lee Ivey, horticulture instructor North Carolina State University.  Bulbs provide an often underutilized landscape option and Lee will explore some creative ideas you may find useful.  You won’t want to miss this program as we get closer to bulb planting season. This lecture is free for Durham Garden Forum members, all others can attend for a fee of $10.00 ($5.00 for students).nRegistration required Contact

Rain Gardens
Thursday, Sep 25, 2014 6:30pm – 8:00pm
Where: Sarah P. Duke Gardens, 420 Anderson Street, Durham, NC, United States
A rain garden allows water to percolate down into the ground slowly, recharging your ground water and minimizing the amount of soil and fertilizer that would otherwise be lost through runoff. Explore the beauty and functionality of rain gardens with Master Gardeners Georgeanne Sebastian and Darcey Martin. Class is free. Registration is required 919-668-1707

What We Do – Training



Master Gardener Volunteers attend a 15 week training course comparable to a university horticulture course. Sessions are taught by Extension Agents, university professors, and experienced Master Gardeners. New Interns work with Mentors while providing volunteer service. After completing the training, initial year’s volunteer hours, and continuing education, interns become certified as Extension Master Gardener Volunteers.

Interested candidates must attend one of the remaining required free information sessions in September or October (training starts in January) at the Durham County Extension office at 721 Foster Street:

  • September 18th, 10:00 am – 12:00 noon
  • September 23rd, 1:00 – 3:00 pm
  • October 2nd, 1:00 – 3:00 pm
  • October 7th, 10:00 am – 12:00 noon

Call 919-560-0525 to register. Training classes will be held on Thursdays, from 9-12:30, January 15 – April 30th (with May 7 & 14 as makeup dates) at the Foster Street office. Applicants must attend one information session, submit their application by November 1, 2014 and if selected, pay the $120 registration fee by December 31.