Poison Ivy: Get it Before it Gets You!

By Jane Malec, EMGV

Few things scare me in the garden. Copperheads, brown recluse spiders and wasp nests come to mind. Now, poison ivy has climbed nearly to the top. Sure, you most likely won’t die from a poison ivy rash, but you may want to at a given point.

I had an encounter, unknowingly, with this vine and the rash is just abating after nearly three weeks. I have been on steroids and antibiotics and will end up with some scars. I did nothing after coming in contact with the poison ivy which made things much worse.

Recognizing Poison Ivy
So, we are going to pretend that this gardener surveyed her yard adequately for all poisonous vines before cutting in new beds. Let’s look at recognizing these plants and how to get them out of your yard. Keep in mind, in areas that you do not plan to garden, compost, or sit and enjoy the scenery, leave the plants alone. Nature has a purpose even for these devils.

poison-ivy
Here’s an interactive QUIZ to help you identify poison ivy.

As a review, poison ivy is a very prolific perennial vine/shrub with the distinctive three leaves. It can be found nearly everywhere in the landscape in both disturbed and undisturbed areas such as roadsides, hiking trails and wooded lots. This woody perennial spreads by runners and will grow in all types of soils. Also, there are many species of birds that eat the berries and pass them directly through their systems which get deposited in other areas to yet be eaten by different types of animals. They in turn redeposit the seeds in your garden. Interestingly, the animals who eat the seeds do not have an allergic reaction to the volatile oils. Lucky them! This process, together with the runners, greatly increases the likelihood that you will have a poisonous creeper of some kind in your yard.

Control with an Herbicide Containing Triclopyr
Armed with this information and knowing the result of an encounter with the plant, being proactive is the best measure. Every article I read online at 2:30 a.m. when the itching kept me from sleeping started out with “the easiest way to avoid contact is to be aware and get it out of your environment.” Not what I wanted to read at that point, but it’s the truth. The options for control really boil down to utilizing an herbicide containing triclopyr which is a woody brush killer. Yanking, pulling and digging are time consuming, risky, and ultimately not effective.

The herbicide should be applied directly to the leaves of the plant. Spray your target not the area. Spring and summer are excellent times to control poison ivy because the plants are actively growing so the herbicide will travel through the plant. Weather also plays a role. Temperatures should be in the range of 60-85 degrees F and avoid windy days. Check the label for dry times to make sure effectiveness is not lost during a rain shower.

Oftentimes, this is not a once-and-done project. You may need to spray again, but wait two weeks or more to give the first application time to work. Look for new growth when you are circling back and, for the best results, spray open leaves only. Be vigilant in your search as resprouting may occur several months later. Once the fall color appears on these plants, do not apply any more herbicide. Wait until spring when the leaves open up and the plants are growing.

Keep in mind that it may take more than one season to rid an area of poison ivy or oak. Check areas carefully and never be over confident. Remember our winged friends are spreading the berries!

Beware of Virginia Creeper
Poison ivy or oak are not the only plants that can cause problems. A very small number of people, myself included, have reactions to Virginia Creeper. Although not as allergic as poison ivy,  raphides, the sap of this vine can cause rashes and blisters if the skin is punctured.

Virginia Creeper is a popular native ground cover or climbing vine due in part to its beautiful fall color and blue-black berries. It is often planted by gardeners and spreads quickly once established. Most people are unaware of potential problems and don’t take precautions with a five-leaf plant as we do with the dreaded three leaves.  If you have had a severe reaction to other poisonous plants, you would be well served to avoid Virginia Creeper.  Follow the same steps previously outlined for poison ivy control if you wish to remove this plant from your environment.

IMG_2066
Virginia Creeper

Finally, here are some important reminders:

  • As with any treatment product, read the label carefully.  Avoid the “this is good enough” method. Also, wear protective clothing.
  • Be very careful cutting down poison ivy plants as all parts of them are poisonous including a dead plant. Do not compost any parts of them; Carefully trash them.
  • Never burn any part of these plants. The smoke and ash can cause a rash and inhaling them can win you a painful trip to the emergency room.

I cannot warn you enough … do not be over confident!

Learn to protect yourself from poison Ivy: Avoiding Poison Ivy’s Wrath

Resources

MSU identify the plant

U of Minn poison ivy control

UAB Virginia Creeper reactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Avoiding Poison Ivy’s Wrath

By Andrea Laine

Leaflets three, let it be! Berries white? Take flight!

Photo: NCSU Cooperative Extension
Photo: NCSU Cooperative Extension

Truer words were never spoken if you, like me, are among the 85% of the population who are allergic to poison ivy. If you are not sensitive to this plant, consider yourself lucky! And if you are unsure, learn to identify it, and try to avoid it. The entire plant – leaves, stems, flowers, fruits, and roots— is poisonous thanks to a colorless, difficult-to-detect oil called urushiol. The oil can cause a very itchy rash that at its worse can become blistery and last two weeks or more. The rash is not contagious (nor is the fluid inside a blister) and scratching does not spread it, but some areas may show up later than others. And speaking from experience, the rash is quite irritating and unattractive.

Photo: medicinenet.com
Photo: medicinenet.com

Learn to identify the plant
Eastern poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) is a woody perennial vine, or small shrub that belongs to the Cashew (Anacardiaceae) family. It reproduces by underground rhizomes and seed. I frequently encounter it as leafy shoots about ankle high. It has compound leaves that occur in threes. The leaflets are elliptic to egg-shaped. The middle leaflet has a long stem. Twin side leaflets have short stems and sometimes are shaped like a mitten. The leaves are alternately arranged along the main stem as illustrated below.

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Poison ivy’s appearance changes with the seasons:

  • In summer the leaves are green. Flowers are small, yellowish green, in clusters of 2 to 6 in lower leaf axils.
  • In fall, the leaves change to autumn colors and tiny berries begin to form. When the leaves drop, the berries get plump and turn white.
  • In winter, the plant is most noticeable as a thick brown vine with shaggy rootlets creeping up a tree.
  • In spring, new leaves appear, shiny and red with green venation.
Poison Ivy in Autumn Photo: NCSU Extension
Poison Ivy in Autumn
Photo: NCSU Extension
Poison Ivy in Winter Photo: NCSU Extension
Poison Ivy in Winter
Photo: NCSU Extension
Poison Ivy in Spring. Photo: poison-ivy.org
Poison Ivy in Spring.
Photo: poison-ivy.org

Poison ivy prefers moist, deciduous forests, but it is resilient and can grow anywhere – a sunny meadow, fence rows, sand dunes at the beach, a parking lot.
Protect yourself
Poison ivy is most dangerous in spring and summer when oil content is the highest. Where I frequently weed, a native woodland habitat, it is hard to avoid encountering poison ivy. Thus, protective clothing is essential. I wear long pants, a long sleeve button-down shirt over a t-shirt, rubber boots or washable sneakers, tall socks, and gloves.

Rubber gloves provide the best protection, but only if you are willing to toss them in the trash after one wearing. If I have an old pair, I will use them, especially if I intend to hand-pull the ivy. Otherwise, I wear one or two sets of latex gloves over my gardening gloves. This way I can peel away and replace the outer layer (with a fresh set of disposable gloves) anytime I need to do something else with my hands, such as wipe sweat from my brow, pick up a gardening tool, or switch to another activity. Long plastic bags like the kind bread loaves come in are also effective to protect hands and arms, though harder to work in. Before I learned to be mindful of poison ivy’s presence while gardening, I would innocently transfer the toxic oil to my neck or face.

gloved hand

Post-exposure prevention
Cleaning up properly after exposure is also important because the oil generally binds to the skin within 30 minutes and can remain active for months on objects like gardening tools and clothing.

I pack three plastic grocery bags in my gardening tote:

  • One is for the outer and inner layers of disposable gloves.
  • Any small tools I have used get dropped into a second bag so they can be cleaned with rubbing alcohol later.
  • Yet another bag is for my long-sleeve shirt because undoubtedly the sleeves have brushed against the ivy. As I remove the shirt, I pull the sleeves inside out to contain the exposed area.

Once all sets of worn latex gloves are in a bag, and before I do anything else, that bag goes into the nearest trash can. My gardening gloves go into the bag with my shirt. Once indoors, I remove the rest of my clothing, being sure to also turn my pants inside out, so they are less apt to come in contact with a surface other than themselves. Launder everything including gardening gloves and sneakers in cold water and detergent. Do not use warm or hot water as it may spread the oil.

Even if you have worn protective clothing, scrubbing your skin afterward with cold water and soap is recommended. There are special over-the-counter cleansing agents, such as Tecnu and Zanfel, to aid in the removal of urushiol from skin. There are protective lotions, too, (Ivy Shield and Ivy Block) that may reduce the risk of a poison-ivy rash by delaying the penetration of the oil. These are applied before exposure.

Numerous topical ointments are available for treating poison ivy symptoms. If a rash develops despite your best preventative efforts, consult a physician or pharmacist for appropriate treatment.

A positive note
Poison ivy does have some redeeming qualities. It gives abundant food and shelter to wildlife which, by the way, are not negatively affected by urushiol. Deer and rabbit munch on its leaves. More than 55 bird species are known to consume poison ivy fruits. It is pollinated by bees; There is no urushiol in the nectar.

Here’s an interactive QUIZ to help you identify poison ivy.

A future article will explore methods to control poison ivy in the landscape.